Teachers Motivation And The Use Of Instructional Materials

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The issue of teachers’ motivation and teachers’ productivity sometimes called quality assurance has become a matter of debate and concern in educational systems and standards. In most developing countries of the world including Nigeria, there has been a growing awareness about teacher motivation which is a key to quality assurance, quality outcomes/delivery and high standards in the educational system. It is acknowledged that any nation that is aspiring to maintain high and quality standards or achieve quality assurance in its educational system must take teachers and their motivational needs with utmost high level of seriousness. TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION Teachers’ motivation is a complex and difficult term to define; therefore a precise definition of this concept is elusive as the notion comprises the characteristics of individual and situation as well as the perception of that situation by the individual. See Samples of Undergraduate Research topics and contemporary project materials for students The school liveliness comes from the motivation of its teachers, although their abilities play just as crucial a role in determining their work performance as their motivation. Motivated and committed teachers can be a determining factor in the success of the school. TYPES OF MOTIVATION The major types of motivation we will be looking at are Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation- the search for optimal Motivation and performance indicated that motivation can be categorized into extrinsic and intrinsic types of motivation. Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation is caused by the expectation of external sanctions to their own behavior. It is expected to achieve a reward or avoidance of punishment or of any potential unintended consequences. In other words, the conduct is instrumental: it becomes a means to an end. For example, by obtaining an economic, social or psychological reward (a bonus, the approval of their peers or recognition of your supervisor) Or it can be taken to avoid unpleasant consequences (the refusal of a salary increase, the rejection of others, or loss of confidence by his boss). Extrinsic motivation depends on another, other than the acting individual. That one can perceive a behavior, or you can evaluate it according to their standards. And also has the option of providing or not the rewards or punishments. Thus there is no guarantee that the conduct which the individual believes will lead right to the goal that promoted such behavior. Extrinsically motivated behavior arises from incentive motivation and consequences that is contingent on the observed behavior. Intrinsic Motivation Teachers are motivated by what they intrinsically believe is going to happen, not by what managers promise (extrinsic) will happen. Managers can motivate teachers by setting in motion the conditions required for motivation, namely; confidence, trust, satisfaction and creating an environment that reinforces those conditions. Green recognizes three of Herzberg’s motivators as being crucial in motivating people. These are recognition, interesting work and responsibility. He says, over and above monetary reward, what people crave is praise. They need assurance that their efforts are known, valued and appreciated. Sometimes all it takes to satisfy this deep desire is a sincere “well done”, preferably delivered in front of their peers. Making people work interesting means driving away boredom because it’s a great de-motivator. Make their work meaningful and you will spur them to realize their own highest potential. Intrinsic motivation is caused by the gratification derived from implementing the individual’s own behavior. The behavior is expressive: it is both means and end. The realization, for example, is a challenging job for which you have the skills, means that the activity is in itself satisfactory. With intrinsically motivated behavior, the motivation comes from internal needs and the satisfaction provides spontaneous activity. The intrinsic motivation by contrast, dispenses with any externality (Self-sufficient). Therefore, the emerging theories of motivation emphasize the importance and potential of intrinsic motivation without reinforcing means to the role of the external sanctions INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials, are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives. Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching-learning process the availabilities of textbook, appropriate chalkboard, Mathematics kits, Science kit, teaching guide, science guide, audio-visual aids, overhead projector, among others are the important instructional material. Instructional materials are those materials used by a teacher to simplify their teaching. They include both visual and audio-visual aids and could either be concrete or non-concrete. These instructional materials bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. Furthermore, instructional Materials are any item or element which a tutor uses to deliver the best teaching experience. They can be human or non-human resources like lectures, readings, textbooks, multimedia components, and other resources. Instructional materials help home tutors provide excellent educational services TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION AND THE USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS When there is proper motivation, it leads to good performance and high productivity to the sustenance of the national growth and development and also the welfare of the citizens. Hence, the impact of motivation on teachers’ use of instructional cannot be over emphasized and they are as follows: Motivation help to direct and improve the learning and teaching process in classroom. For instance, when a motivated teacher is given a class to teach, he/she puts every effort to ensure that he gets his job done effectively and efficiently. Even when he fails in the teaching process, he does not get discouraged but rather puts more effort towards the achievement of his goals. Also, the impact of motivation on teachers can be seen in the classroom settings. Motivation energizes the behaviour of teachers and arouses them for action. Not only the motivation energizes the behaviour, it also sustains their interests and behaviour for a longer period of activity. Motivated state helps to increase efficiency and adequacy of behaviour. For instance, a motivated teacher faces his class work with zeal and interest and also makes use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning. Such teachers will always be in school and carryout the necessary assignment. Another impact of motivation on teachers’ use of instructional materials could be seen in the performance and academic achievement of their students. The behaviour is directed towards a selective goal which the individual sets for himself. In such a situation, the teacher’s action or behavior does not move in a haphazard manner instead, it is being directed towards the achievement of a selective goal which the individual sets for himself. Example is when a teacher is determined to achieve efficiency in teaching and learning; such a person selects appropriate behaviour such as the use of instructional materials and other learning materials, so as to attain his set goals. And the motive ends by the achievement of the goals.

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